Sunday, March 22, 2020
At start of the movie, one of the black employees in the organization says that he hates his job and has never been promoted despite constant efforts to maximize his productivity. Too many rules and regulations were introduced in the workplace, Ã¢â¬Å"office that looks efficient is efficient. Ã¢â¬ Women donÃ¢â¬â¢t get promotion to top level easily, violet had been working since last 12 years but her trainee got promoted faster than she did because the trainee was male. According to Mr. Hart teamwork experience is learned from the game of football, since women donÃ¢â¬â¢t play football they are unaware of how to work in a team, this reflected negatively amongst many employees and VioletÃ¢â¬â¢s temper increased day-by-day, she told Mr. HartÃ¢â¬â¢s assistant when she was assigned a task to deliver few paper, Ã¢â¬Å"I know exactly where to stick it up,Ã¢â¬ indicating her frustrations towards work. Mr. Hart purposely threw pencil case down when his assistant was writing a letter, he wanted her to bend so he could she her cleavage. We will write a custom essay sample on 9 to 5 Movie Analysis or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He was a flirt and took the best advantage of his higher position. He later pretended to help her by helping her pick few pencil of the floor trying to show that he actually cared, his intentions were to impress her and make her indulged in sexual relationships with him. However he did have feelings for Doralee and was not strictly for sexual pleasure, not that they ever indulged in one. Violet, Ã¢â¬Å"playing it safeÃ¢â¬ when Hart presented her idea to the president of the company without giving her any credits, she dint react immediately because she wanted the promotion that only Hart could provide. Later Bob gets promoted and not her, Ã¢â¬Å"clients like to deal with men,Ã¢â¬ increasing her frustrations towards Mr. Hart. Her relationship with her son is unique in comparison to most of the relationship that mother and child hold. She is open about smoking joints with and in front of her son; in fact her son rolled a joint for her so she would calm down from workplace frustrations. Violet smokes marijuana in the office bathroom, she is open to take risks. When Violet, Judy and Doralee smoke together, they hallucinate about killing/torturing Hart, this depicts like a revolution against the upper class by the common people. All three became friends due to one common factor and that was their hatred towards Hart. Ã¢â¬Å"I know how you feel,Ã¢â¬ Roz told Violet when Hart was admitted in the hospital. Roz thought that Violet was upset and she was concerned about Mr. HartÃ¢â¬â¢s health, but in reality she was concerned about herself and figuring a way out of the mess she had created. She accidently put Ã¢â¬Å"rat-poisonÃ¢â¬ in HartÃ¢â¬â¢s coffee, soon after which Mr. Hart had lost consciousness and was admitted in the hospital. Doralee on the other hand played her part as an employee and immediately called for ambulance to seek help even though had spread false rumors about her and was constantly harassing her knowing that she was married and not interested. Doralee was an active employee and completed her tasks successfully even though she was harassed constantly. Work was her priority and she was good at her work, she played a critical role when she tied up Mr. Hart in the office when he accused her and her friends for attempted murder towards him. She tried to explain the whole situation calmly, but Mr. Hart was unwilling to listen, he instead told her to visit him at his place. This was against her values especially as a wife and circumstances forced her to engage in such behaviors. Difference between how the three women treat him and how they were treated in the organization varies enormously. In office work is supposed to be considered fun, this has resulted in long hours of torture and monotonous tasks. Employees working in this organization feel like they have been prisoned during working hours. However these three women after chaining him down like a prisoner and keeping him within four walls provided Mr. Hart with magazines, television and cigars for entertainment along with lunch deliveries so he would not starve. The emotional considerations of these women are way higher in comparison to Mr. Hart, whose motive is power and money for self-consumption. Mr. HartÃ¢â¬â¢s absence was not felt amongst majority of the employees in the organization, exception being Roz. Roz had closer working relationship with Mr. Hart because she did everything she was asked for and completed her task without questioning, nor did she respond out of turn. She wanted to be monitored by superiors; in this manner she could avoid problems for herself as well. When Doralee told her that she was assigned to complete a task in France by Mr. Hart, she immediately left for France without inquiring or finalizing with Mr. Hart. She did not question her superiors and completed her tasks, her flexibility and ability to complete her task was well appreciated by Mr. Hart. Men excel women in workplace and therefore higher positions should be appointed to men rather than women. Teamwork is essential, all employees were expected to work together and cover one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s back in times of crises, however benefits were shared by very few, even though inputs were divided amongst employees. Status was important, boss is always more powerful and has complete authority to make final calls. Salary discussions were not permitted. One common factor amongst most of the employees was that they all shared common language, this firm did not have diversified group of employees. This is not always a positive factor; diversity brings in more idea, creativity and innovation from different perspectives and standpoints. Dick, JudyÃ¢â¬â¢s ex-husband plays a small role in this film. Dick seems to be male-dominated and expects Judy to take him back when he goes to visit her. He had left Judy because he was in love with his secretary; at that point he did not account for JudyÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings but expected her to have same feelings for him even after their marriage was over. Misunderstanding takes place when Dick accuses her for sleeping with her boss right after their marriage came to an end. Hart was chained and tied up in the room, Dick that Hart and Judy were engaging in some sort of sex games and his misunderstanding was never cleared because Judy accepted the accusations even though they were false, and immediately threw Dick out of the house, she did not want Dick finding out further information on this case. Throwing her husband out was something she had never done before; this left her more brave and courageous. Ã¢â¬Å"Several people lost their hearing in this roomÃ¢â¬ Violet told Judy while making copies in the Xerox room. However no action was taken against it, nor was it replaced. This reflects negatively upon organizational ethics and gives a sense of perception that organization/Mr. Hart did not care as long as their costs were cut and profits maximized. Violet, Judy and Doralee wanted promotion, equality, more liberty and less stress during office hours. When they kidnapped Mr. Hart they tried to renegotiate their contract, this was not successful as Mr. Hart was growing more impatient and was not ready to meet any of their needs. This forced Violet, Judy and Doralee to take control of the office in absence of Mr. Hart. They managed to successfully convince all employees that Mr. Hart was in office even though he was tied up in his house. Upon gaining Mr. HartÃ¢â¬â¢s position three women changed work policies and practices. They introduced breaks for their employees giving them an opportunity to socialize with their colleagues and get to know one another better. There was more freedom in the office for employees, they were not constantly monitored this helped reduced the pressure and stress level amongst employees. They allowed employees to place photo frames of their beloved once on their work table, this was not allowed under Mr. HartÃ¢â¬â¢s regime. New salary policies were introduced for employees, new policies included increase in wages for all employees no matter whether they were janitor or bottom level employees. Their salaries were increased to boost motivation in the organization and outcomes were positive. They introduced day care center for employees, this was introduced to avoid high stress level amongst employees. Employees could visit day care center if they felt sick during work hours as well. This reduced sick leaves, and boosted morale to work harder as employees were more active than they were previously. Part time work was introduced in the organization; under Mr. HartÃ¢â¬â¢s presence organization had standardized working hours for all its employees no matter male or female, young or old. Part time working hours introduced flexibility amongst many employees, retention rate dropped drastically as employees could come work when available and also maintain a balance between their work life and personal life. Violet and her friends managed to spend good amount of organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s money on renovation of the workplace, in an attempt to make it look new and lively, their attempt was successful. This attempt was not made previously because Mr. Hart wanted to cut down cost so that he could increase his pockets, little did he know that renovating would be a successful investment that would increase profits in long term. Black people were employed and given positions that were above the standards of janitor as long as they met the job specifications. They were given their own desk to work in and this brought an end to Ã¢â¬ËracismÃ¢â¬â¢ against the blacks. Organization prohibited such actions before and more than 90% of the employees working in higher positions were white male or female. Upon her arrival in the country, Mrs. Hart went home just to see her husband tied and chained up. She immediately loosened him and set him free. She was unaware of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s workplace practices, she thought he dearly loved her and was loyal and supportive towards her husband. She tried to set up a trap for Doralee by sending her to HartÃ¢â¬â¢s house inside which Mr. Hart was held hostage. As soon as Mr. Hart returns to the office, he tries to get standard procedures back in order in a complete authoritarian approach. He threatens Violet, Judy and Doralee telling them Ã¢â¬Å"Send you three bitches to jail,Ã¢â¬ remarks like these represent the value and respect Mr. Hart had towards women in workplace, this could increase demotivation and decrease the lack of ability to perform better amongst employees. However, Mr. Hart did not take into account what other employees might feel and hence often heard using foul language in workplace. When chairman of the company decides to show up unannounced, Mr. Hart gets extremely paranoid and feels insecure. Violet, Judy and Doralee had completely changed the organizational structure along with organizational norms and roles, this increased Mr. HartÃ¢â¬â¢s tension. However when chairman of the company sees that employees were happy and motivated he praises Mr. Hart for his performance and his work ethics. Confused and speechless, Mr. Hart introduced Violet to his chairman and decided to give her credits for bringing in the change; he would have given Violet no credits if he knew what Mr. Hart was talking about, unaware of certain terms and concepts he gave full responsibility to Violet, who successfully impressed the chairman. Towards the end of the movie, Mr. Hart gets promoted by his chairman and is expected to work in their Brazilian office. Three women celebrate upon hearing this. Doralee has a friendly personality, tries to make friends with other employees in the organization but no one becomes her friend because of the misjudgment of what she is like. Her closeness towards the boss brings jealousy amongst her line of employees, she is pretty and this creates insecurity amongst other employees, hence she is always left alone despite constant efforts. Misunderstanding takes place when he tells everyone in the office that he has been having an affair with Doralee. Things change from here on, Doralee becomes impatient and learns to speak up for her, in order to defend herself from false accusations. Inaccurate judgment takes place when Violet thinks Mr. Hart is dead due to rat poisoning that was dissolved in his coffee. Upon her visit to the hospital in which Hart was admitted, she overheard the doctor saying Ã¢â¬Ëhe is deadÃ¢â¬â¢ and thought it was Hart. She takes the body out of the hospital bed before a mandatory autopsy was carried out; not knowing it was someone else. This misjudgment could have resulted in federal offence if things did not fall back to normal. This incident also indicates that Violet has no boundaries set for herself, and can reach any extent to stay out of trouble and keep herself clean from criminal records. Violet wanted to take the body and dump it elsewhere so no proofs were found, however Doralee had a different approach in mind. She played like a devilÃ¢â¬â¢s advocate and constantly disagreed to VioletÃ¢â¬â¢s plans. Juliet was paranoid as well, but wanted to make cautious decisions that would result in effectiveness. Her patience towards the matter brought an end to VioletÃ¢â¬â¢s and DoraleeÃ¢â¬â¢s quarrel over the dead body. Accurate judgment takes place when Violet, Judy and Doralee decide to take over the office in absence of Mr. Hart. These three women had managed to kidnap Mr. Hart in his own house; he was kidnapped because employees were tired of his central command structure in the office. He would hold employees back to make them work longer, engage in sexual harassment cases and always held a brutal tone towards lower level employees. Violet, Judy and Doralee were employees that were tortured and harassed by Mr. Hart. As employees working for their boss, they knew exactly what practices were hated by employees and which were not, each varying a little based on perception. However they did hold an accurate judgment when it came to dealing with employees, as soon as they took control over Mr. HartÃ¢â¬â¢s position they introduced policies that would reflect positively upon employees from their own perspectives. The outcome was positive and organization experience enormous increase in profits over a period of 2-4 weeks. They knew exactly what policies and procedures were lacking in the organization and immediately restricted for better outcome for the organization and the employees within. Mr. Hart was an authoritarian leader in eyes of most of his employees. He wanted his assigned work completed on schedule, giving exception to few employees for the mistakes they commit; his forgiveness is based upon personal vendetta that he holds against the employee. Hart Ã¢â¬ËfiredÃ¢â¬â¢ a female employee upon finding out that she had been discussing about salaries in the work place during work hours. He held no sympathy towards the women before making decisions. He also engaged in sexual harassment practices towards his employees, he made wrong use of his power in status in the organization. Hart was unhappy by the promotion and realized the torture and pain his employees undergo every day in order to keep up with him, his demands and his work practices. He paid his dues when he was abducted by a tribe in Brazil, Ã¢â¬Ëwhat goes around comes around. Ã¢â¬â¢
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Advertising job likes and dislikes listening exercise In this listening comprehension you will hear a woman speaking about what she likes and dislikes about her advertising industry job. Listen to what she says and decide whether the following statements are true or false. You will hear the listening twice. Try to listen without reading the listening transcript. After you have finished, check your answers below to see if you have answered the questions correctly. Listen to the selection. Advertising Job Quiz Her job is extremely diverse.She spends a lot of time on the phone.She telephones people to ask them survey questions.The most important thing is what people think.They can lose jobs if sales decrease.She enjoys the artistic nature of her job.Her best idea came when she was brainstorming.Brainstorming is done alone.One great idea alone can bring success.You can lose your job easily.What profession does she work in? Listening Transcript Well, everyday for me is different. I mean to say that some days I speak to clients for hours and hours, and try to convince them that our ideas are the best. Ã A lot of my time is spent on research. Well, we have to deal with all the viewing and readership figures. We make up our own surveys to discover what a cross section of people think. We dont just look at what people think, but because what really counts is: What sells the goods? The simple fact is that if we dont show a rise in sales we lose a customer.Ã The part I really enjoy is the creativity. Its funny really. I get ideas in the most peculiar places. The best idea I ever got was one time when I was sitting in the bath. I jumped out and wrote it down immediately. We also do what we call brainstorming. That is: pooling and sharing our ideas. And we get the best ideas this way. That is as a result of teamwork. I mean, alright, we depend on everybody being creative, and this often happens best when youre working alone. But without a good team, no campaign has a hope in hell of succeeding. A good agency is, in fact, a team of individuals who work well alone, but also together.Ã Hmmm, the drawbacks. Now, the biggest drawback of my work is that you stand or fall by your results. If you cant think of new ideas, or you make an expensive mistake then you get fired. And youre out of a job. Thats always worrying, I can tell you.Ã Quiz Answers True - Every day is different. She states Well, everyday for me is different.True - Sometimes she spends hours and hours on the phone with one client. She states, I speak to clients for hours and hours and try to convince them that our ideas our best.False - She does research on data they get from surveys. She statesÃ A lot of my time is spent on research.False - Sales is the most important thing. She statesÃ ... because what really counts is: What sells the goods?True - If sales dont rise, they can lose a customer. She statesÃ The simple fact is that if we dont show a rise in sales we lose a customer.True - She really enjoys the creativity. She statesÃ The party I really enjoy is the creativity.False -She was sitting in a bath. She statesÃ The best idea I ever got was one time when I was sitting in the bath.Ã False - Brainstorming is when everybody gets together to come up with ideas.Ã She statesÃ ... we call brainstorming. That is: pooling and sharing our ideas.Fals e - Teamwork is required for success. She statesÃ A good agency is a team of individuals who work well alone, but also together. True - If you make a mistake you can get fired.Ã She statesÃ If you make an expensive mistake then you get fired.Ã Advertising
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Assignment Example Political risk is the effect of change in political policies on investment. It is upon the government how much they want to return to the investor, they may even stop him from withdrawing his capital. Iquisha further commented below as to how helpful SusanÃ¢â¬â¢s post was as she thought the answer would be none of the above and the investors received the correct amount of return due to exchange rate. IquishaÃ¢â¬â¢s comment is welcomed and we hope all her ambiguity is cleared through the answer. Another student Marquisha also commented to SusanÃ¢â¬â¢s answer in a positive manner and also stated about political risk from her book. MarquishaÃ¢â¬â¢s effort is highly appreciated. If US dollar depreciates, it implies that more dollars are required to purchase foreign goods, which in turn means that foreign goods become expensive for Americans. However, for foreigners, the implication of a depreciation in the US dollar is favorable. Due to decline in US dollarÃ¢â¬â¢s value against foreign currencies, the holders of the respective foreign currencies will find US goods cheaper, as they have to spend less dollars (Byrd, Hickman and
Monday, February 3, 2020
Engineering ethic - Case Study Example Ã¢â¬Å"The audit alleges "[u]nnecessary costs for material loading, storage and transportation," the installation of temporary roofing, insurance paid prior to work cancellation and "[e]xcessive construction management costs," totaling more than $1.4 millionÃ¢â¬ (Klasfeld). In this case, the violation is primarily bribery. Such cases happen when several influential and dominant members in the contractor and the consultant firms allow bribery for the entertainment of mutual interests. Current and new engineers should beware of the way the contractor-consultant bond can have negative implications for the client. Moreover, Turner Construction Company has conventionally maintained a very good name in the American construction industry. Such allegations from the city comptroller can cause a lot of harm to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s image. New engineers should abstain from such unethical construction practices not only because they are wrong but also they tarnish the image of a company, which is the most fundamental asset of any company. In order to prevent such a situation from repeating itself, auditing should be made an essential component of every stage of the project. Particularly, there should be pre-payment auditing. In addition to that, proper documentatio n, reimbursement and adequate use of allowance are compulsory for avoiding such ethical misconducts in the construction practices. I have lived in hostel during my undergraduate studies. Hostel life is completely different from the life at home. You constantly remain among friends and foes. In my hostel, there is a culture of calling one another by awkward names. One of my hostel mates had gynecomastia, because of which, boys started to call him Booby. Coincidently, his name was Bob. Bob got so irritated with his hostel name Booby that he made a cut into his chest with a blade. The matter was taken to the adjutant, who called all hostel boys and said that if Bob reports him about anybody calling
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Pulse Oximetry For Anaesthesia In Veterinary Practices Biology Essay Pulse oximetry is one of the most commonly used pieces of monitoring equipment for anaesthesia in veterinary clinics today. Using a pulse oximeter allows us to monitor the percentage of haemoglobin (Hb) which is saturated with oxygen in a non-invasive way, allowing us to detect hypoxia before the patient is visibly cyanotic. The pulse oximeter consists of a probe attached to the patient (usually tongue, ear, or prepuce/vulva) which is linked to a computerised unit. The unit displays the percentage of Hb saturated with oxygen and a calculated heart rate, often with an audible signal for each pulse beat. Some units also have a graphical display of the blood flow past the probe called a plethysmograph. The pulse oximeter is able to determine the percentage of haemoglobin saturated with oxygen, commonly referred to as SpO2, by emitting red and infrared light from the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on one side of the probe, which travels through the tissue (or reflects off depending on the probe type) to the photodiode on the other side of the probe. The machine analyses the light that reaches the photodiode and is able to detect subtle differences in the absorption of light by oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin. As these differ in absorption levels, the amount of red and infrared light absorbed by blood is related to haemoglobin oxygen saturation. The pulse oximeter can calculate the heart rate as it detects the pulsations as the volume of arterial blood in the tissue changes during the pulsative cycle, affecting light absorption. Adequate oxygenation is essential at all times for the body to perform its metabolic processes. The heart and brain are the bodys biggest consumers of oxygen, and if oxygenation levels decrease to critical levels, tissue damage occurs extremely quickly. Oxygen travels in the blood in two forms as unbound oxygen dissolved in plasma and as oxygen that is bound to the haemoglobin. In healthy patients breathing room air (which contains approximately 21% oxygen), oxygen dissolved in plasma equates to a very small percentage of the total oxygen in the blood (most texts list this as less than 1.5%), and the majority of blood oxygen is bound to haemoglobin (the remaining 98.5%). Measuring and monitoring oxygenation via pulse oximetry is very useful as it is monitoring the oxygen that is bound to haemoglobin, which is what is utilised by the body for normal cell function. Monitoring SpO2 however does not give you a good indication of how well the patient is ventilating (or breathing) for itself, especially during anaesthesia. A common mistake veterinary nurses make is to presume that if a patient has a SpO2 of 95% or higher under anaesthesia, then it is breathing adequately. We can get lulled into a false sense of security by having a good saturation figure when the patients respiration is completely inadequate. There are two main functions of respiration, one is getting oxygen out of the air and into the body, and the other is getting carbon dioxide out of the body and into the air. It possible for the patient to be getting enough oxygen into their body but not being able to get rid of enough carbon dioxide, so the SpO2 will show a good reading, but the patient may be hypercapnic (elevated levels of carbon dioxide). A capnograph should be used to measure end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels and assess patient respiration. Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) is a measurement of the levels of unbound oxygen in the plasma, and as discussed above, makes up a small percentage of the total oxygen in the blood. However PaO2 is important as it influences the saturation of haemoglobin because there must be an adequate level of dissolved oxygen in the blood to be available to bind to the haemoglobin. It is also important to understand that oxygen saturation and PaO2 are linked (when one goes up the other goes up and vice versa), however it does not have a direct linear correlation. As PaO2 decreases, the saturation level decreases slowly at first, but then decreases rapidly (see table **). In a patient which is breathing room air, the PaO2 is about 100mmHg, whereas for a patient breathing 100% oxygen (as for anaesthesia), their Pa02 is around 500mmHg and SpO2 is 100%. If this patient has a PaO2 drop to 100mmHg (a drop of 400mmHg) their SpO2 will drop to around 98%. If a further drop to 80mmHg occurs, their SpO2 will drop to around 95%. After this point, the SpO2 will start a more dramatic drop; if PaO2 drops to 60mmHg (another 20mmHg drop) will mean their SpO2 will be about 90%. A further drop of 20mmHg to a PaO2 of 40mmHg, the saturation will go from 90% to 75%. In practical application, when monitoring SpO2 in a normal healthy dog or cat, it should be 95-100%. Levels between 90-95% must be investigated, and critical values for oxygen saturation are below 90%.Simply, this means that the total oxygen available to the body decreases very little when partial pressures are above 80mmHg (Spo2 of 95%), however they decrease rapidly below this level, such as patients with lung disease, lack of oxygen, inadequate ventilation etc. Practically put, if you patient has a Sp02 of 90-95% this can indicate hypoxaemia and must be investigated as your patients haemoglobin is not fully saturated. If your patient has a Sp02 of less than 90%, then immediate therapy must be initiated oxygen if not receiving already, ventilation assistance etc. Sp02 of 85% or below for more than 30 seconds is considered an emergency. Placing the SpO2 Probe There are two main types of probes available on the market transmission or reflective. Transmission probes are the most common, and are usually mounted in a clip. These are generally used on the tongue, pinna, toe webbing, vulva or prepuce, or any other area that is thin and relatively hairless. Reflective probes have the light source and sensor side by side and are often taped to the base of the tail after it has been clipped, or covered and inserted into the oesophagus or rectum. When placing rectally, it is important to ensure that there are no faeces between the sensor and the rectum wall. Tongue, Cheeks, Prepuce, Vulva With tongues, start at the tip and work your way toward the base. Always direct the light downward, toward the floor; regardless of the animals position to reduce the effects of ambient light (ambient light will affect accuracy). For patient comfort, keep the tongue moist during longer procedures by applying a dampened gauze swab between the tongue and the probe. Do not have the gauze too thick as it can alter the reading by impeding the light transmission. To get a better reading on smaller tongues, bring the sides of the tongue up and pass the light through both layers. Do not fold the tip of the tongue, as you will restrict blood flow to the tongue. The same principals apply to placing the probe on the cheek, prepuce or vulva. Hock Moisten the hock area with isopropyl alcohol and/or water, and clip hair if needed. Pinna (Ear) The probe can be placed on the ear using the same technique as the tongue. Long haired animals may need a patch shaved first for the sensor to work correctly. Toes Probes can be placed on the metatarsals or metacarpals or in the webbing between them. Tail Place the reflective probe on the ventral base of the tail. The LEDs should be positioned dorsally. You may need to clip a small patch of hair, only large enough for the LEDs to lay on the skin. Be sure the skin is clean. Hold the sensor snugly against the tail and wrap with non-adhesive wrap. Poor SpO2 Readings When you detect a poor or low saturation reading, it is vital that you check the patient before you check the machine. Make sure your patient is stable by assessing all vital signs. Pulse oximeters need a strong regular pulse where the probe is located. If there is only a weak pulse, the pulse oximeter may display a reading but it might not be accurate. Most pulse oximeters have a pulse strength indicator as a bar graph and this should be used to ascertain whether you have correct placement. If the clip of the probe is too strong, this can also affect your reading by constricting the blood flow in front of the sensor. If this is the case, swapping the clip for a more gentler one is the best option, otherwise reposition the sensor to somewhere that can take the pressure (this will usually be thicker). An irregular signal caused by an irregular heartbeat or by the patient moving, shivering or fitting can cause problems for a pulse oximeter. If a patient moves too much, try relocating the probe to another location. Ambient light may be too bright for the sensor to operate correctly. Theatre lights can especially cause issues. Any sensor that is located in bright light should have a drape placed over it to reduce light contamination for more accurate readings. Do not place the sensor is on the same limb as a blood pressure cuff, the blood flow restriction from the cuff during measurement will interfere with the pulse oximeter sensor operating correctly. Other factors that can affect SpO2 readings include pigmented skin either normal pigment or jaundiced patients; peripheral vasoconstriction eg hypothermia, shock, drug-induced; or excess hair can cause interference and should be clipped away to allow the probe to sit directly against the skin. Wetting down with alcohol can also help with excess hair when you are not allowed to clip. Pulse Oximeter Maintenance Read your manufacturers instructions regarding the care of your pulse oximeter and probe. For infection control, you should always wipe the probe sensor and clip between patients. Most sensors can be surface-cleaned by wiping with 70% isopropyl alcohol. Do not immerse the sensor in liquid unless the manufacturer instructions state immersion is possible. After each cleaning and prior to each use, inspect the sensor and cable for fraying, cracking, breakage, or other damage. Inspect the clip for cracking or breakage, or loss of spring tension that would allow slippage or movement of the sensor from its proper position. If defects are noted, do not use the sensor or clip as it may provide an inaccurate reading. When used properly, pulse oximeters are an easy to use and readily available piece of monitoring equipment especially for anaesthesia, however it is important to note that they do not replace hands-on monitoring, and are not a valid method of assessing whether a patients respiration is adequate, as they provide a late indication of respiratory issues.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
$91, ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s all it cost to have ESPN incorporated back in 1978, when it was only run by three people, Bill Rasmussen, Scott Rasmussen, and Ed Eagan. Now if you take a look at ESPN today, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll see one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest broadcast corporations. The History of ESPN is a long and pretty interesting story. Like stated above, the history of ESPN truly begins on September 7th, 1978, when the three founders paid $91 to have the company incorporated. After deciding to go with a 24-hour broadcasting schedule, ESPN debuted with Sports Center later that month, and then began to air a large variety of sports ranging from professional soft ball, to NCAA wrestling. Their fist dabble into a massive professional sport would be with the United States Football League, whoÃ¢â¬â¢s games would be aired on the network. The league only survived for three years, but it gave the network the experience it needed when they gained partial rights to air Sunday Night football games, in 1987. Sunday Night Football would be on the network for nineteen years, till they switched to Monday nights. These are just the starting years to the massive behemoth that is ESPN. The 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, a good a time period as any for ESPN. They gained rights to air MLB games, and also saw the founding of ESPN 2, in 1993. ESPN radio kicked of a year before ESPN 2, in 1992, making the company multi medial. 1996 saw the presence of Disney corperation, the parent company of ESPN, merge ABC sports and ESPN together. In 1997, ESPN started using SKYCAM to air itÃ¢â¬â¢s NHL games, and would soon put that innovative tech to use with the three other major sports leagues, MLB, NFL, and NBA. Company founders were long gone now, and things were looking really good for the future of the company.
Friday, January 10, 2020
ANIMAL ORGANIZATION AND HOMEOSTASIS QUIZ ? NOTE: THIS SECTION ALSO INCLUDES THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM _____1. Which gives the correct sequence of increasing organizational complexity? ?a) organ, tissue, cell, organ system, organism ? b) cell, organ, organ system, tissue, organism c) cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism ? d) organism, tissue, cell, organ system, organ ? e) tissue, cell, organ system, organism, organ _____2. Which type of tissue lines body cavities and covers body surfaces? ?a) muscle tissueÃ Ã b) nervous tissueÃ Ã c) epithelial tissueÃ Ã Ã d) connective tissue ____3. Which type of tissue is responsible for contractions that allow movement of organs or the entire body? ?a) muscle tissueÃ Ã Ã b) nervous tissueÃ Ã Ã c) epithelial tissueÃ Ã d) connective tissue _____4. Which type of tissue is responsible for receiving, interpreting, and producing a response to stimuli? ?a) muscle tissueÃ Ã Ã b) nervous tissueÃ Ã Ã c) epithelial tissueÃ Ã Ã d) connective tissue _____5. Which tissue includes bone and cartilage? ?a) muscle tissueÃ Ã b) nervous tissueÃ Ã c) epithelial tissueÃ Ã d) connective tissue _____6. Which tissue includes the epidermis? a) muscle tissueÃ Ã Ã Ã b) nervous tissueÃ Ã Ã c) epithelial tissueÃ Ã Ã d) connective tissue _____7. Digestive juices cannot leak between the epithelial cells lining the lumen because of ? a) muscle tissueÃ Ã b) nervous tissueÃ Ã Ã c) epithelial tissueÃ Ã d) connective tissue _____8. Which tissue includes blood and adipose tissue? ?a) muscle tissueÃ Ã b) nervous tissueÃ Ã Ã c) epithelial tissueÃ Ã Ã Ã d) connective tissue _____9. Which of the following statements is Not true about epithelial tissue? ?a) Flattened cells are found in squamous epithelium. ?b) Columnar epithelium is cubed-shaped with the nucleus near the upper surface of the cells. c) Simple epithelium has a single layer of cells in the tissue. ?d) Pseudostratified epithelium looks like it has multiple layers, but all the cells are attached to the same base. ?e) Epithelium lining the respiratory tract contains cilia that move particles along its surface. _____10. Which statement about epithelial tissue is Not true ? ?a) Stratified epithelium has numerous layers of cells. ?b) Epithelial tissue has one free surface and one surface attached to a basement membrane. ?c) Connections between epithelial cells include gap junctions, tight junctions, and spot ? esmosomes (adhesion junctions). ?d) Cells of the human epithelium contain a waterproof protein called keratin. ?e) Glandular epithelium that secretes its product into a duct forms the endocrine glands. _____11. Which is Not a function of connective tissue? ?a) line body surfaces and cavities ? b) bind and support body parts ? c) store energy in fat ? d) fill spaces ? e) produce blood cells _____12. Which statement about connective tissue is Not true? ?a) Connective tissue contains cells capable of differentiating into muscle and bone in animals. b) Loose connective tissue contains fibroblasts, different kinds of fibers, and a nonliving matrix. ?c) Fibrous connective tissue includes bone and cartilage. ?d) Blood is a connective tissue that contains a fluid matrix. ?e) Adipose tissue provides insulation and padding, as in skin. _____13. Which is Not a structure seen in compact bone? ?a) concentric circles of organization ? b) Haversian canals containing blood vessels and nerves. ?c) osteocytes located within lacunae ? d) bony bars and plates with irregular spaces between them ? e) cytoplasmic extensions of bone cells in canaliculi _____14. Which statement is Not true about cartilage? ?a) Cartilage cells are located in small spaces called lacunae. ?b) The matrix of cartilage includes collagen and elastic fibers. ?c) The matrix of cartilage includes calcium salts. ?d) The original skeleton of the human embryo is made of cartilage. ?e) Adults have cartilage structures that include the nose, ear, and intervertebral disks. _____15. Which statement about blood is Not true? ?a) Erythrocytes carry oxygen. ?b) Platelets are not complete cells. ?c) Platelets are involved in blood clotting. ?d) Leukocytes are involved in the body's defense against infection. e) The fluid matrix, plasma, is made by the cells in the bloodstream. _____16. Which of the following statements about muscular tissue is Not true? ?a) Skeletal muscle fibers are extremely large cells with multiple nuclei. ?b) All striated muscle is under voluntary control. ?c) Smooth muscle lacks striations. ?d) Striated muscle has bands of actin and myosin filaments perpend icular to the length of the cell. ?e) Skeletal muscle fibers form as multiple precursor cells joined to produce a single cell. _____17. Which statement about heart tissue is Not correct? a) The heart is composed mainly of cardiac muscle tissue. ?b) Cardiac muscle is not striated. ?c) Cardiac cells have a single central nucleus. ?d) Cardiac muscle movement is involuntary. _____18. The heart is made of cardiac fibers that are bound together in one interconnected mass due to ? a) shared nuclei. ?b) tight junctions. ?c) adhesion junctions (desmosomes). ?d) gap junctions. ?e) intercalated disks made of both desmosomes and gap junctions. _____19. Which statement is Not true about nervous tissue? ?a) Cells in the nervous system that conduct electrical impulses are called neurons. b) Glial cells support and protect neurons. ?c) The dendrites carry electrical impulses away from the cell body of the neuron. ?d) Nerve fibers are long axons and dendrites bound by connective tissues to form nerv es. ?e) Glial cells may provide neurons with nutrients or keep them free of cellular debris. _____20. Which structure is Not a part of the skin? ?a) stratified squamous epithelium ? b) melanocytes ? c) dermis ? d) connective tissue ? e) subcutaneous tissue _____21. The general process of gaining a tan and then losing it is best explained by which of the following? a) Melanocytes form melanin in the dead top epidermis and it is soon washed off. ?b) Melanocytes form melanin in response to sunlight but blood flow slowly carries it away. ?c) Melanocytes form melanin in response to sunlight but then reabsorb it in the absence of light. ?d) Melanocytes in the dividing layer of the epidermis produce melanin, but then cells divide and ? half are constantly being pushed to the top to flatten and be washed off. ?e) Ultraviolet light damages the subcutaneous skin cells but these dark burned cells soon are ? dissolved and replaced by healing processes. _____22. If you wash your skin and hair several times a day, you will soon have dry skin that easily ? cracks and bleeds because the oils you have removed are necessary to keep skin supple. This oil is ? a) pili secreted by arrectors. ?b) lymph secreted by lymphatic ducts. ?c) sebum secreted by sweat glands. ?d) sebum secreted by sebaceous glands. ?e) salty sweat secreted by sweat glands. _____23. Possible indications of skin cancer are ? a) an open sore that will not heal. ?b) a wart that bleeds an scabs. ?c) irregular shaped mole with grey, white, or red skin around it. ?d) All of the above are correct. e) None of the above are correct. _____24. When discussing homeostasis in body temperature, it is Not true to say that the body responds to ? a) cold by contracting the arrector pili muscles. ?b) cold by contracting skeletal muscles in shivering. ?c) cold by rerouting blood away from the skin. ?d) heat by stimulating sweat release. ?e) heat by constricting the blood vessels in the skin. ____ _25. In which of the following structures would one most likely find smooth muscle? ?a) biceps muscleÃ Ã b) heartÃ Ã Ã c) digestive tractÃ Ã Ã d) quadriceps muscleÃ Ã Ã e) gluteus maximus muscle _____26. One type of cell communicating mechanism allows materials to pass through cells and not between them. ?This is due to the nature of the cells being in direct contact with each other. An example would be found in the ? epithelial cells of the gut and is known as a(n) ? a) tight junctionÃ Ã b) gap junctionÃ Ã c) plasmodesmataÃ Ã d) adhesion junctionÃ Ã Ã e) desmosome _____27. Haversian canals and a matrix of crystals of calcium phosphate would be found in ? a) teethÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã b) nailsÃ Ã Ã Ã c) hoovesÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã d) boneÃ Ã Ã Ã e) cartilage _____28. Cuboidal epithelium would be found ? a) in the walls of the heart. b) in the knees and other joints as well as in the nose and tracheal rings. ?c) on the surface of the skin. ?d) lining glands and kidney tubules, and covering the ovaries. ?e) in tendons and the sheath around voluntary muscles. _____29. An example of a positive feedback loop would be ? a) a rise in body temperatur e causing a dilation of blood vessels in the skin. ?b) the patellar reflex. ?c) the production of epithelial cells to heal a cut. ?d) blood clotting. ?e) constriction of the iris of the eye in bright light. _____30. Intercellular junctions are important in both plants and animals. Which of the ? ollowing is Not used by animals as junctions? ?a) tight junctions ? b) plasmodesmata ? c) desmosomes ? d) gap junctions ? e) communicating junctions _____31. Of the items listed, which is Not required for maintenance of life? ?a) waterÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã b) foodÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã c) carbon dioxideÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã d) pressure _____32. Homeostasis refers to ? a) changing external conditions. b) stable external conditions. ?c) changing internal conditions. d) stable internal conditions. _____33. Which of the following is Not one of the four basic types of body tissues? ?a) epithelialÃ Ã Ã Ã b) connectiveÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã c) brainÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã d) muscleÃ Ã Ã Ã e) nervous ____34. A basement membrane occurs between ? a) muscle and nerve tissue. b) epithelial and connective tissue. ?c) connective tissue and muscle tissueÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã d) brain and nerve tissue. _____35. Epithelial tissue functions in ? a) secretionÃ Ã Ã Ã b) absorptionÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã c)Ã protectionÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã d)Ã All of the above. _____36. The muscle tissue that can be consciously controlled is ? a) smoothÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã b) skeletalÃ Ã Ã Ã c) cardiacÃ Ã Ã Ã d) intercalatedÃ Ã Ã Ã e) None of these. _____37. Which of the following is Not a characteristic of nerve tissue? ?a) It is found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. b) It contains cells that respond by transmitting impulses. ?c) Its intercellular spaces are filled with collagen. ?d) Functional cells are sensitive to changes in their surrounding. _____38. Permanent wrinkling of skin is usually due to changes caused by excessive exposure to ? a) waterÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã b) sunlightÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã c) dry airÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã d)Ã heat _____39. Which of the following cell types are least likely to reproduce? ?a) endothelial cells that line the digestive tract. b) fibroblasts of connective tissue. ?c) skeletal muscle cells. d)Ã red bone marrow cells. _____40. The subcutaneous layer is located ? a) above the epidermis. b) between the epidermis and dermis. ?c) within the dermis. d) beneath the dermis. _____41. Which of the following is Not correct concerning the skin? ?a) The dermis is usually thicker than the epidermis. ?b) The epidermis is composed of stratified squamous epithelium. ?c) The subcutaneous layer is between the dermis and epidermis. ?d) The dermis contains smooth muscle and nerve tissue. _____42. Exocrine sweat glands ? a) are most common in the armpits and groin. ?b) respond primarily to elevated body temperature. c) respond primarily to emotional stress. ?d) usually are associated with hair follicles. _____43. Acne is a disorder involving the ? a) sweat glandsÃ b) hair folliclesÃ Ã c) sebaceous glandsÃ Ã Ã d) apocrine glandsÃ Ã e) endocrine glands _____44. Skin cells play an important role in the production of ? a) vitamin AÃ Ã Ã Ã b) vitamin BÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã c) vitamin CÃ Ã Ã d) vit amin DÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã e) vitamin E _____45. The largest organ of the human body is the ? a) brainÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã b) liverÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã c) stomachÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã d) skinÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã e) lungs _____46. Keratin ? a) is a waterproof protein. b) fills dead cells in the dermis. c) is a skin pigment. d) All of the above are true. _____47. The dermis ? a) covers the epidermis. b) produces melanin. ?c) contains nervous tissue and blood vessels. d) consists mostly of dead cells. _____48. Which of the following is secreted by sebaceous glands in the skin? ?a) melaninÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã b) sebumÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã c) keratinÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã d) sweat _____49. Hair and nails are composed primarily of ? a) sebumÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã b) keratinÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã c) melaninÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã d) glandsÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã e) living cells _____50. Hair color and skin color are determined by ? a) keratinÃ Ã Ã Ã b) sebumÃ Ã Ã Ã c) melaninÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã d) glands